Technical Cryptonight Discussion: What about low-latency RAM (RLDRAM 3, QDR-IV, or HMC) + ASICs?
The Cryptonight algorithm is described as ASIC resistant, in particular because of one feature:
A megabyte of internal memory is almost unacceptable for the modern ASICs.
EDIT: Each instance of Cryptonight requires 2MB of RAM. Therefore, any Cryptonight multi-processor is required to have 2MB per instance. Since CPUs are incredibly well loaded with RAM (ie: 32MB L3 on Threadripper, 16 L3 on Ryzen, and plenty of L2+L3 on Skylake Servers), it seems unlikely that ASICs would be able to compete well vs CPUs. In fact, a large number of people seem to be incredibly confident in Cryptonight's ASIC resistance. And indeed, anyone who knows how standard DDR4 works knows that DDR4 is unacceptable for Cryptonight. GDDR5 similarly doesn't look like a very good technology for Cryptonight, focusing on high-bandwidth instead of latency. Which suggests only an ASIC RAM would be able to handle the 2MB that Cryptonight uses. Solid argument, but it seems to be missing a critical point of analysis from my eyes. What about "exotic" RAM, like RLDRAM3 ?? Or even QDR-IV?
QDR-IV SRAM is absurdly expensive. However, its a good example of "exotic RAM" that is available on the marketplace. I'm focusing on it however because QDR-IV is really simple to describe. QDR-IV costs roughly $290 for 16Mbit x 18 bits. It is true Static-RAM. 18-bits are for 8-bits per byte + 1 parity bit, because QDR-IV is usually designed for high-speed routers. QDR-IV has none of the speed or latency issues with DDR4 RAM. There are no "banks", there are no "refreshes", there are no "obliterate the data as you load into sense amplifiers". There's no "auto-charge" as you load the data from the sense-amps back into the capacitors. Anything that could have caused latency issues is gone. QDR-IV is about as fast as you can get latency-wise. Every clock cycle, you specify an address, and QDR-IV will generate a response every clock cycle. In fact, QDR means "quad data rate" as the SRAM generates 2-reads and 2-writes per clock cycle. There is a slight amount of latency: 8-clock cycles for reads (7.5nanoseconds), and 5-clock cycles for writes (4.6nanoseconds). For those keeping track at home: AMD Zen's L3 cache has a latency of 40 clocks: aka 10nanoseconds at 4GHz Basically, QDR-IV BEATS the L3 latency of modern CPUs. And we haven't even begun to talk software or ASIC optimizations yet.
CPU inefficiencies for Cryptonight
Now, if that weren't bad enough... CPUs have a few problems with the Cryptonight algorithm.
AMD Zen and Intel Skylake CPUs transfer from L3 -> L2 -> L1 cache. Each of these transfers are in 64-byte chunks. Cryptonight only uses 16 of these bytes. This means that 75% of L3 cache bandwidth is wasted on 48-bytes that would never be used per inner-loop of Cryptonight. An ASIC would transfer only 16-bytes at a time, instantly increasing the RAM's speed by 4-fold.
AES-NI instructions on Ryzen / Threadripper can only be done one-per-core. This means a 16-core Threadripper can at most perform 16 AES encryptions per clock tick. An ASIC can perform as many as you'd like, up to the speed of the RAM.
CPUs waste a ton of energy: there's L1 and L2 caches which do NOTHING in Cryptonight. There are floating-point units, memory controllers, and more. An ASIC which strips things out to only the bare necessities (basically: AES for Cryptonight core) would be way more power efficient, even at ancient 65nm or 90nm designs.
QDR-IV and RLDRAM3 still have latency involved. Assuming 8-clocks of latency, the naive access pattern would be:
This isn't very efficient: the RAM sits around waiting. Even with "latency reduced" RAM, you can see that the RAM still isn't doing very much. In fact, this is why people thought Cryptonight was safe against ASICs. But what if we instead ran four instances in parallel? That way, there is always data flowing.
Cryptonight #1 Read
Cryptonight #2 Read
Cryptonight #3 Read
Cryptonight #4 Read
Cryptonight #1 Write
Cryptonight #2 Write
Cryptonight #3 Write
Cryptonight #4 Write
Cryptonight #1 Read #2
Cryptonight #2 Read #2
Cryptonight #3 Read #2
Cryptonight #4 Read #2
Cryptonight #1 Write #2
Cryptonight #2 Write #2
Cryptonight #3 Write #2
Cryptonight #4 Write #2
Notice: we're doing 4x the Cryptonight in the same amount of time. Now imagine if the stalls were COMPLETELY gone. DDR4 CANNOT do this. And that's why most people thought ASICs were impossible for Cryptonight. Unfortunately, RLDRAM3 and QDR-IV can accomplish this kind of pipelining. In fact, that's what they were designed for.
As good as QDR-IV RAM is, its way too expensive. RLDRAM3 is almost as fast, but is way more complicated to use and describe. Due to the lower cost of RLDRAM3 however, I'd assume any ASIC for CryptoNight would use RLDRAM3 instead of the simpler QDR-IV. RLDRAM3 32Mbit x36 bits costs $180 at quantities == 1, and would support up to 64-Parallel Cryptonight instances (In contrast, a $800 AMD 1950x Threadripper supports 16 at the best). Such a design would basically operate at the maximum speed of RLDRAM3. In the case of x36-bit bus and 2133MT/s, we're talking about 2133 / (Burst Length4 x 4 read/writes x 524288 inner loop) == 254 Full Cryptonight Hashes per Second. 254 Hashes per second sounds low, and it is. But we're talking about literally a two-chip design here. 1-chip for RAM, 1-chip for the ASIC/AES stuff. Such a design would consume no more than 5 Watts. If you were to replicate the ~5W design 60-times, you'd get 15240 Hash/second at 300 Watts.
Depending on cost calculations, going cheaper and "making more" might be a better idea. RLDRAM2 is widely available at only $32 per chip at 800 MT/s. Such a design would theoretically support 800 / 4x4x524288 == 95 Cryptonight Hashes per second. The scary part: The RLDRAM2 chip there only uses 1W of power. Together, you get 5 Watts again as a reasonable power-estimate. x60 would be 5700 Hashes/second at 300 Watts. Here's Micron's whitepaper on RLDRAM2: https://www.micron.com/~/media/documents/products/technical-note/dram/tn4902.pdf . RLDRAM3 is the same but denser, faster, and more power efficient.
Hybrid Cube Memory
Hybrid Cube Memory is "stacked RAM" designed for low latency. As far as I can tell, Hybrid Cube memory allows an insane amount of parallelism and pipelining. It'd be the future of an ASIC Cryptonight design. The existence of Hybrid Cube Memory is more about "Generation 2" or later. In effect, it demonstrates that future designs can be lower-power and give higher-speed.
The overall board design would be the ASIC, which would be a simple pipelined AES ASIC that talks with RLDRAM3 ($180) or RLDRAM2 ($30). Its hard for me to estimate an ASIC's cost without the right tools or design. But a multi-project wafer like MOSIS offers "cheap" access to 14nm and 22nm nodes. Rumor is that this is roughly $100k per run for ~40 dies, suitable for research-and-development. Mass production would require further investments, but mass production at the ~65nm node is rumored to be in the single-digit $$millions or maybe even just 6-figures or so. So realistically speaking: it'd take ~$10 Million investment + a talented engineer (or team of engineers) who are familiar with RLDRAM3, PCIe 3.0, ASIC design, AES, and Cryptonight to build an ASIC.
Current CPUs waste 75% of L3 bandwidth because they transfer 64-bytes per cache-line, but only use 16-bytes per inner-loop of CryptoNight.
Low-latency RAM exists for only $200 for ~128MB (aka: 64-parallel instances of 2MB Cryptonight). Such RAM has an estimated speed of 254 Hash/second (RLDRAM 3) or 95 Hash/second (Cheaper and older RLDRAM 2)
ASICs are therefore not going to be capital friendly: between the higher costs, the ASIC investment, and the literally millions of dollars needed for mass production, this would be a project that costs a lot more than a CPU per-unit per hash/sec.
HOWEVER, a Cryptonight ASIC seems possible. Furthermore, such a design would be grossly more power-efficient than any CPU. Though the capital investment is high, the rewards of mass-production and scalability are also high. Data-centers are power-limited, so any Cryptonight ASIC would be orders of magnitude lower-power than a CPU / GPU.
EDIT: Greater discussion throughout today has led me to napkin-math an FPGA + RLDRAM3 option. I estimated roughly ~$5000 (+/- 30%, its a very crude estimate) for a machine that performs ~3500 Hashes / second, on an unknown number of Watts (Maybe 75Watts?). $2000 FPGA, $2400 RLDRAM3, $600 on PCBs, misc chips, assembly, etc. etc. A more serious effort may use Hybrid Cube Memory to achieve much higher FPGA-based Hashrates. My current guess is that this is an overestimate on the cost, so -30% if you can achieve some bulk discounts + optimize the hypothetical design and manage to accomplish the design on cheaper hardware.
Sinovate:Preguntas & Respuestas por Tamer Dagli - CEO y fundador
Preguntas & Respuestas Sean bienvenidos a una nueva sección para la comunidad hispana donde hablaremos de toda publicación la cual será traducida y publicada por el embajador correspondiente para la comunidad hispana, en esta sección se colocara toda actualización, información ya que nuestra comunidad hispana necesita tener de forma mas cómoda todo en su dialecto predilecto así que hoy hablaremos de una entrevista muy particular que tuvo nuestro fundador Tamer Dagli con la cuenta de Panama_TJ los cuales llevan un buen tiempo hablando de proyectos de calidad.
1. ¿Qué problemas resolverá SINOVATE?
Además de la adopción masiva, el primer problema que SINOVATE (SIN) resuelve es la inflación que se presentan en las criptomonedas. Este no es un problema único asociado con las monedas ordinarias de Masternode, que suelen estar cargadas de problemas de inflación derivados de la alta generación de intereses. De hecho, casi todas las criptomonedas experimentan problemas de alta inflación, independientemente de los niveles de incentivos proporcionados. Los nodos infinitos SINOVATE son una gran evolución e incluso una revolución de Masternodes para resolver el problema de la alta inflación , utilizando el mecanismo de prueba de quemaduras (PoB nodos infinitos son gratificantes, con un gran interés para los propietarios de nodos y al mismo tiempo reducen el suministro circulante general. Cuantos más nodos en el sistema significan menos monedas en el suministro circulante.
El segundo problema que SINOVATE (SIN) resolverá es la gestión descentralizada de la información — Almacenamiento de datos incorruptible (IDS)
IDS es un sistema de redes privadas de igual a igual, que permitirá transacciones y almacenamiento entre los mineros y los propietarios de Infinity Node. Los competidores, incluidas las soluciones Sia, Storj, BitTorrent e incluso IPFS, recompensan a las personas por servir y alojar contenido en el espacio de su disco duro, lo que requiere una captación de 24/7 para las computadoras. Los discos duros de los usuarios deben permanecer abiertos y las recompensas recibidas deben justificar los costos incurridos por dejar la computadora en línea. En IDS, la red privada de almacenamiento descentralizado se basa únicamente en la cadena de bloques SINOVATE, y solo los propietarios de los nodos reciben recompensas como compensación por la utilización de sus recursos de disco duro para ejecutar un Nodo Infinito. Los propietarios de nodos obtendrán recompensas tanto de los nodos infinitos como del almacenamiento de datos confidenciales.
IDS tendrá 5 pasos de evolución.
Paso 1. DataSend o datos enviados Los usuarios podrán enviar documentos y solo datos de SMS entre las billeteras de SIN, al igual que enviar sus monedas hasta 1.5 Megabytes (MB). Se proporcionarán dos opciones de envío a los usuarios, conocidas como legales (256 bits) e ilegales (1024 bits o más). Los datos que se envían en 256 bits solo serán accesibles por los gobiernos para el descifrado. Sin embargo, los datos seguirán siendo indestructibles para el uso empresarial. Los datos que se envíen en 1024 bits o más serán imposibles de descifrar incluso para los gobiernos, si se elige esta opción. Paso 2. Adición de datos de voz y video hasta 3MB. Paso 3. Aumentar el espacio Etapa 4. Aumentar el almacenamiento de datos Paso 5. Almacenamiento descentralizado basado en blockchain ilimitado para eliminar centros de datos en todo el mundo. Tercer problema — seguridad de la red Sinovate tiene varias características que hacen que nuestra red sea altamente segura. En la capa de prueba de trabajo (PoW) tenemos nuestro algoritmo en constante evolución, la versión actual se llama X25X. Esto tiene una cadena más larga, lo que hace cada vez más difícil para los fabricantes de ASIC y FPGA hacer un chip rentable. También tiene una nueva “etapa aleatoria” que aumenta aún más este costo. Con la prueba de trabajo demorada proporcionada por nuestra relación con Komodo y por lo tanto, con Bitcoin, esto hace que la cadena sea altamente resistente al 51% de ataques experimentados por otros altcoins. En la capa Infinity Node, el sistema único de quema de monedas aumenta sustancialmente el costo para cualquier atacante potencial, protegiéndonos contra Sybil, Finney y otros ataques de Masternode.
2. ¿Cuáles son las especificaciones de SINOVATE y cómo se traducen al inglés para hablantes no conocedores de criptomonedas?
SINOVATE es una moneda digital peer-to-peer que apunta a innovaciones nuevas y únicas.
Moneda de prueba de trabajo (POW) escalable con 533 transacciones por segundo.
Los nodos infinitos que controlan la inflación al quemar las monedas requeridas para configurar un nuevo nodo sin dejar de incentivar a los poseedores del nodo, lo que proporciona estabilidad y crecimiento para la red.
FlashSend, la velocidad del rayo confirmó las transacciones en menos de 3 segundos.
ShadowSend, anonimato a través de la mezcla de monedas con 5 mezclas predeterminadas.
Incorruptible Almacenamiento de datos de igual a igual Redes privadas con la opción DataSend, al igual que el envío de monedas.
Quema todas las tarifas de las transacciones por menores emisiones.
RSV, E-Gobernancia con un voto rotativo de 12 meses, con pagos de votos quemados por menos emisiones.
3. ¿Por qué es único SINOVATE? ¿Cómo es mejor que otros proyectos?¿Por qué prosperará?
SINOVATE tiene un equipo grande y experimentado que quiere marcar la diferencia en todo el espacio de criptomonedas mediante la creación de innovaciones únicas abiertas a todos. Los nodos infinitos son una de las primeras innovaciones únicas que controlarán la inflación, la presión de venta y la centralización de los fondos retenidos. Tenemos innovaciones únicas con el almacenamiento de datos en cadena, con más detalles de esto que se revelarán a su debido tiempo.
4. ¿Cómo simplificará SINOVATE el uso de la criptomoneda para la adopción masiva?
Nuestro equipo se basa en una gran diversidad de habilidades de muchas áreas de negocios. Esto nos permite diseñar y perfeccionar la experiencia de interactuar con SINOVATE Blockchain en muchos niveles, desde desarrolladores, líderes empresariales y niveles operativos, hasta la experiencia del usuario final. Esto nos permite desarrollar el software y las experiencias del usuario desde la perspectiva de todos los involucrados, asegurando que el usuario final sea el enfoque principal.
5. ¿Quién está detrás de SINOVATE? ¿Cuáles son sus orígenes?
SINOVATE consta de 36 miembros del equipo de todo el mundo, con 3 fundadores. Aquí hay un enlace a la página web de nuestros Miembros del Equipo: https://sinovate.io/team/
6. ¿Cómo se financiará SINOVATE?
SINOVATE recibe una comisión de fondos de desarrollo del 1.1%, que se genera a partir de recompensas en bloque para futuros desarrollos y fondos.
7. ¿Cuáles son tus planes de intercambios?
SINOVATE ya está listado en muchos intercambios. Luego de la inminente publicación del Documento Legal, se agregarán intercambios adicionales de gran volumen. Sin embargo, no podemos comentar sobre detalles en este momento.
8. ¿Qué es / será el Plan de Marketing de SINOVATE?
SINOVATE tiene una presencia muy fuerte en las redes sociales y una comunidad altamente comprometida. Recientemente hemos ampliado nuestros esfuerzos de marketing más allá de las campañas orgánicas con comunicados de prensa profesionales, videos, programas de recompensas, anuncios de búsqueda y listados.
9. ¿Cómo será la gobernanza de SINOVATE para 2020?
El gobierno de SINOVATE, llamado RSV, proporcionará a los propietarios de Nodos infinitos derechos de voto revolventes durante la vida útil de sus nodos (máximo 12 meses) en todos los desarrollos. El tiempo limitado de votación permitirá una mayor descentralización y menos emisiones, esperamos y alentamos por completo que el futuro del proyecto sea regido por nuestros usuarios.
10. ¿Quiénes son los competidores más cercanos de SINOVATE?
No nos consideramos tener competidores como tales, ya que la misión de la fundación es hacer crecer el espacio para todos. Nos complace trabajar con todos los proyectos, tanto al aprender del gran trabajo realizado por otros como al ofrecer algo a otros proyectos con nuestro código de código abierto.
11. ¿Qué asociaciones actuales tiene SINOVATE y cuál será el propósito de estas relaciones?
Además de las asociaciones relacionadas con Masternodes, SINOVATE se asoció con KOMODO para la integración de la protección contra ataques dPoW 51%, que estará activa a fines de julio o principios de agosto de 2019.
12. Por favor, comparta el “tokenomics” para SINOVATE .
¿Qué es Tokenomics? Tokenomics se compone de dos palabras “Token” y “Economía”. Tokenomics es el tipo de calidad estándar de una moneda (token) Los miembros / comunidad / inversores deben buscar y ayudar a construir el ecosistema alrededor del proyecto subyacente de ese token. Los factores que influyen en la valoración de una moneda forman parte de su tokenomics. Tokenomics es un tema amplio, que contiene una variedad de componentes.
Un proyecto prometedor debe tener un gran equipo detrás. El Equipo SINOVATE está compuesto por 36 miembros expertos, experimentados y confiables.
Asignación de monedas
Un proyecto confiable debe tener transparencia, así como fondos, pero no de premine o ICOs. SINOVATE anteriormente SUQA ha estado presente durante 9 meses y comenzó su viaje sin un premine o ICO. El Equipo SINOVATE recibe un 1.1% de las recompensas de bloque por Mayor desarrollo y comercialización del proyecto.
Marca y relaciones públicas y comunidad
Sin una red y comunidad más grande, los proyectos no pueden existir.
La comunidad de SINOVATE está creciendo a diario y de forma orgánica en todos los canales de marketing y redes sociales.
El servidor Discord tiene 4.570 miembros con un mínimo de más de 1.000 usuarios siempre en línea.
Los canales de Telegram tienen 8.500 miembros y el canal ruso de Telegram tiene 2.355 miembros.
Twitter tiene 2.785 seguidores.
Facebook tiene 2,000 seguidores.
Los canales regionales también contienen cuentas respetables de miembros.
Modelo de negocio
Los modelos de negocio son un factor crítico para las soluciones descentralizadas. Ser una moneda de transacción no diferencia un proyecto de otros, por lo que un proyecto confiable debe tener un gran modelo de negocio. Por ejemplo: los inversores de EOS deben apostar y aferrarse a sus tokens para recibir los recursos necesarios para ejecutar aplicaciones descentralizadas. Los propietarios de Infinity Node deben tener nodos configurados para reducir las emisiones y recibir incentivos para apoyar la red. Nuestro sistema está diseñado para recompensar a los inversionistas tempranos y posteriores, a medida que crece la cadena de bloques y se unen más usuarios, se queman más tarifas a través del uso diario. Las tarifas se mantienen bajas para uso individual. Sin embargo, a medida que la red crece, las recompensas para todos crecen con ella a medida que las monedas se eliminan del suministro circulante a través de la quema de tarifas y el bloqueo de los nodos infinitos. Esto conduce a un circuito de retroalimentación positiva que ayudará al crecimiento y desarrollo de SINOVATE a la vez que recompensa a los titulares de nodos, mineros, inversores y usuarios diarios. Los propietarios de nodos infinitos también serán recompensados al almacenar datos confidenciales en la cadena de bloques SINOVATE.
Uso en el mundo real
Uno de los aspectos más importantes de tokenomics es usos del mundo real.
SINOVATE tendrá una solución descentralizada de DataSending y DataStorage de información para uso diario, por parte de cualquier persona, incluidas las empresas.
El segundo caso de uso más importante de SINOVATE es la solución y el uso de la herencia en criptomonedas.
La información detallada estará disponible durante julio de 2019, a través del Informe técnico de evolución.
Para que un proyecto prometedor obtenga una adopción masiva, debe ser legal en todo el mundo. El Documento Legal de SINOVATE debe publicarse poco después de la publicación de este artículo.
Moneda (Token) Estructura
Capa 1 o Capa 2 Como ejemplo, Ethereum (ETH) es la capa 1 y los ICO que usan la cadena de bloques ETH son la capa 2. SINOVATE es una criptomoneda de capa 1 con su propia Blockchain. Utilidad vs Seguridad Jeremy Epstein, el CEO de la leyenda de Never Stop Marketing, explica que las monedas de utilidad pueden:
Dar a los titulares el derecho de usar la red
Dar a los titulares el derecho de tomar ventaja de la red votando
Dado que hay un límite superior en la disponibilidad máxima del token, el valor de las monedas puede aumentar debido a la ecuación de oferta y demanda.
Una moneda criptográfica que no pasa la prueba de Howey se considera un token de seguridad. La infraestructura de Infinity Nodes de SINOVATE, el voto por gobierno electrónico de RSV y el uso de monedas SIN en IDS permiten que SINOVATE sea una moneda de utilidad, con el documento legal proporcionado por nuestro socio legal Bermúdez Tejerro.
Especificaciones de flujo de monedas
Para el flujo de monedas, un inversor en criptomoneda debe mirar lo siguiente:
¿El objetivo del proyecto es construir un ecosistema continuo y estable a largo plazo?
¿Cómo entran las monedas en el ecosistema y lo dejan?
¿Cómo se incentiva a los inversionistas para llevar adelante el proyecto?
Flujo de monedas en la Capa 1
Incentivación del participante
Recompensar a los mineros y a los propietarios de Infinity Node por su participación en la red a través de la Prueba de trabajo, la Prueba de quema y la Prueba de servicio.
Desarrollo de plataforma
Según la teoría de la ley de Metcalfe; Cuanta más gente en la red, más valor tendrá la red. Efecto de red en nodos infinitos — 2 nodos 1 conexión -5 nodos 10 conexiones — 12 nodos 66 conexiones. SINOVATE Nodos infinitos premia a los participantes por apoyar la red. Este soporte proporciona menos emisiones y más nodos para una red saludable.
13. ¿Cuál es el presupuesto para Desarrollo y Marketing?
Se asignan 15 millones de monedas SIN a la fundación para fines de desarrollo y comercialización, a través del premio de bloque del 1.1% durante toda la vida útil de la emisión.
14. ¿Qué aspecto tendrá la Hoja de ruta después de 2019?
Habrá un Hard Fork significativo en el primer trimestre de 2020. El nuevo Hard Fork permitirá la próxima generación de innovaciones únicas, como un nuevo consenso personalizado, la adición de una cadena paralela con POS y escalabilidad hasta niveles vistos con otras redes rápidas y más allá, al mismo tiempo que resuelve el problema de la herencia en criptografía. Los detalles de la próxima Prueba de conceptos se publicarán en julio de 2019, dentro del Informe técnico de evolución.
16. ¿Cuál es su plan de negocios a largo plazo? ¿Qué otros casos de uso podrían implementarse en el futuro?
Hay muchos ejemplos de cómo se podría utilizar SINOVATE Blockchain en industrias en un amplio espectro de campos. La incorporación de las características únicas de blockchain combinada con la capacidad de almacenar, enviar y recuperar documentos de manera segura es una poderosa adición al conjunto de características SINOVATE. Puede usarse junto con sistemas y procesos heredados para llevar tecnología de punta a muchas empresas, sectores y usuarios individuales. Los datos y la documentación se almacenan de manera descentralizada, a través de la cadena de bloques SINOVATE. Esto significa que los documentos y los datos almacenados proporcionan una fuente de verdad incorruptible:
A look into the future regarding Decentralization,ASIC resistance and Vertcoin and other crypto currency (Long Post)
Warning: this post is lengthy because it includes details to understand the current development of Crypto and ASIC resistant Cryptos. I. Decentralization is the fundamental assumption in the block chain security model: I am glad that the recent Vertcoin price hike have brought more people to the awareness of crypto-currency decentralization. As decentralization is an assumption in satoshi's white paper, and hence the fundamental aspect in block-chain's security model. It appears that the block-chain security model is not complete. As you can see, there is an obvious concentration of computing power appears in bitcoin where one or two ASICs manufactures are controlling more than 51% of the network hash power. In satoshi's white paper, the assumption of 1 CPU,1 vote, does not hold indefinitely. Just 5-6 years after the inception of blockchain, we appear to have such machine based on ASIC, and the phenomenon of 1 ASIC, 1*103 or more votes, and the magnitude is only seem to be increasing. Centralization defeats the entire security model of any crypto-currency based on block-chain and its variant. As of the time of the writing the bitcoin network and its public ledger's survival is not based on its invulnerability to rewrite, but based on the fact that the ASIC computing powers that secure the network currently lacks incentive to destroy it. When such incentive arrives the result can be catastrophic. As whoever controls the 51% hash power control the power to modify the block chain. In the Segwit 1 fork, there is worry that the bitcoin chain can not survive. (reference this article for a variety of possibility during a fork where miner controls the majority of hash power: https://medium.com/@jimmysong/uasf-bip148-scenarios-and-game-theory-9530336d953e ). In segwit 2X fork, some miners wants to make their own copy of of the chain, and in the process destroy the original chain. This upcoming fork is much more threatening than every single bitcoin fork comes before it. II. CPU/GPU vs FPGA vs ASIC - you must understand the differences to understand the ASIC resistance movement The decentralization problem is not fully solved yet. the crypto community and its developers are left to fill in the question. As you can see the current approach is to make hashing algorithm to be hard to realize in ASICs. To fully discuss this approach, we must look at the currently available computing hardware architectures. the list go like this: (CPU and GPU)->FPGA->ASICs. The list go from the most general purpose,flexible computing hardware to the least flexible, and specific task computing hardware. The list also go from the worst raw performance(you can say hash power for crypto) to the best raw performance, given a specific task. CPU, and to a extend GPU are general purposed hardware that can be programmed to perform all tasks, while ASIC(Application Specific Integrated Circuits) can only perform a specific task. FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Arrays) - sits somewhere in the middle, it can be reprogram to perform a specific task better than CPUs and GPUs but the performance and durability is worse than ASIC. In therms of computing speed,optimization and hence raw performance on a specific task, the list goes in reverse, this is because hashing algorithms and its calculation can be optimize thru parallelism(I have 10 workers to do 1 task 10 times quicker) and pipe-lining (think factory production pipeline with sequential work stations). CPU and General-Purpose GPUs in our computers exploit parallalism and pipe-lining to a degree, But because they are general hardware, the exploitation is limited because they must accommodate all types of possible computation. ASICs, are develop to only accommodate the required computation in a task, and exploit parallelism and pipe-lining to the extreme, this gives rise to ASICs such as AntMiners, where the performance is more than 3 magnitudes better than CPU and GPU. III. ASIC resistance, and the movement to keep the crypto decentralize The ultimate goal of alt-coin development is to fill in the void of satoshi's block-chain security model. The void is , How to keep the network decentralized in terms of hashrate/s? The obvious answer, the first approach, would be to let the most abundant hardware to perform as well as the least abundant hardware. Thus, make an hashing algorithm so that either a CPU can perform as well as ASICs, or make an algorithm so that it is very very hard(cost prohibited) to develop ASICs for. It appears that this approach is the most successful at the moment, some memory hard algorithms such as Vertcoin's very own Lyra2REv2 has no ASICs currently available. But on the longer time frame, the profit driven development of ASICs is a definite trend, ASIC resistance is a constant Spear vs Shield game. Being ASIC resistance is not necessarily equivalent to being decentralized. There are several ramification of being ASIC resistant. First the algorithm is necessarily more complex and cost more electricity on CPU/GPU to perform. Secondly, Developing ASIC for algorithm such as Lyra2REv2 is hard. Because of this hardness, there are fewer people who can develop this than the amount of people who can develop SHA256*bitcoin ASICs. Maybe in the not too distance future bitmain's monopoly over SHA256 ASICs would end and more of us can purchase a bitcoin ASIC, thus the bitcoin network becomes decentralized again. But because it is harder to develop Lyra2REv2 ASICs, once developed the ASIC monopoly can remain for a very long time enough to destroy the network. Because fewer people can do it, it will be more centralized once developed. This does not mean that Vertcoin's security model is not good. In fact it is very promising. First the hardness to develop Lyra2REv2 ASIC can be to the point of such extrem that no one is able to figure out over an very long period of time. Second, once developed, the devs promise to hard fork the network again with a new algorithm in their tool bag. because the tool bag is unknown, the ASIC development cycle repeats, possibility over a long time. So the Vertcoin's hashing algo Lyra2REv2 is among the best of all crypto. combining with the fact that a promised evolution of hashing algo once ASIC appear, I dare to say that the security/decentralization model is the best in crypto. IV. Further discussion regarding ASICs and Network decentralization and security. paradigm switch regarding ASICs It is in the profit driven nature that an ASIC would apear,Bitcoin already fell, for a memory hard algo, Scrypt and Scrypt-N is thought to be resistant enough, but ASIC appear, thus LiteCoin and The old Vertcoin falls. Vertcoin later forked and adapt to Lyra2 , and sub sequently Lyra2REv2 and remain the most secure coin. For the ones used by GroestleCoin(Groestl), Decred(Blake256), SteinCoin(Stein256) , although there is no ASICs, but over an infinite horizon, the ASIC will appear this coins can all flop over night, if they do not adapt to the changes , Like what Vertcoin can do. I think in the infinitely long term, there are 2 solution. 1st the same as Vertcoin, Keep ASICs out, and keep evolving the unknown puzzle bag for replacement if ASICs appear. 2nd, Amend the algorithm so that the theoretical upper bound in the speed up from ASIC is low. This requires making most calculations sequential and none-associative, with a slow bottle neck. thus parallal and pipe-lining machine can not take too much advantage. After that make ASIC development an open source, community movement, so that the entire community is guarantee to enjoy the advancement in ASICs. This would guarantee that the advantage from a new novel asic is small compare to what the community have, and limit the degree of concentration of hash power. ASIC can also benefit the network by reducing power consumption and increase transaction speed. V. Conclusion The current security model of Bitcoin is flawed and Vertcoin's solution is the current best at tackling the security concern. The promise of evolution of Vertcoin's Lyra2REv2 can be a viable long term solution to the Spear vs Shield game of ASICs. Nonetheless, I think we are making good progress of filling the void. I hope the future decentralization solution of Vertcoin can evolve past the paradigm of strictly ASIC resistance, and considering community driven and fair distribution of ASICs. I hope everyone in crypto can participate in this discussion. Disclosure: I hold Vertcoin, 100% of my porfolio :).
[F.A.Q.] Vertcoin ASIC-Resistance – All the answers you need
[F.A.Q.] Vertcoin ASIC-Resistance – All the answers you need For those who don't know me, I'm a student of Computer Science and Networking hosted by Pisa's University and Sant'Anna (which, simply put, is the Italian equivalent of M.I.T.). I have been with Vertcoin almost since the beginning, I've studied it in detail along with many other coins. The above was written to convince you that I know what I'm saying. In a huge amount of threads, especially on Reddit, I keep on reading questions like:
What if someone makes an ASIC?
Also Litecoin said that Scrypt was ASIC-resistant, can this happen to Vertcoin in the future!?!
What if a factory decides to invest a huge amount of money because for whatever reason Vertcoin becomes so valued that... bla bla bla?!?!?
The Answer Part 1 First of all I have to clarify what an ASIC is. No, I won't use any technicality except for that which can't really be avoided. An ASIC is a piece of circuitry. It is like a GPU. You plug it and it does a given job. The main difference is that an ASIC is explicitly made to do really specific work. This leads to really high performances compared to more generic hardware like GPUs or CPUs. To achieve this, an ASIC has to be built in a really specific way. This means that also the famous N value of Scrypt has to be hardcoded within. Hardcoded can be interpreted in two ways:
There entire board has the algorithm strictly implemented in the hardware. This means that N is “stored” in a non-changeable way. This is the best way to implement an ASIC, it is actually the definition of ASIC. Performance is crazy fast (e.g. Bitcoin ASICs)!
There is a specific hardware unit that stores the N value in a changeable way. However, to achieve this change a “firmware upgrade” is needed. This means that some sort of dynamism has to be put in the ASIC board and anything that is able to “adapt” directly leads to a huge decrease in performance. The board that comes out is an hybrid between an FPGA and an ASIC. These are the actual ASICs that are coming out for Litecoin right now. Why? Because they are prototypes,and easier to change if something unexpected occurs and that's why Performance/Watt ratio is good, but pure performance vs GPUs simply sucks.
Part 2a “Ok, let's assume the above is clear. How does this makes Vertcoin ASIC-resistant forever or for at least a long period of time (I mean decades)?” If you have this question in your mind, I wasn't that clear. Apologies, let me answer again: With N changing periodically the first type of ASIC is trivially killed. Why? Because, let's suppose that 1 VTC is worth, I don't know, $1.000.000. A company says “wow! Let's make an ASIC, who cares how much it costs, look at that!”. They start to make the ASIC, they design it, make a couple of prototypes, do an Alpha test, then a Beta tes..... ops N changed! We lost I don't know how much money and time. You may say they can prevent it and directly build the ASIC for the next N. Ok. Supposing that this company has the market value of Google (otherwise technology would cost so much to do a predicted-ASIC that even thinking about it would make the company immediately bankrupt), the ASIC would be viable and working for just one time frame. After that the only thing that could be done with it is throw it in the trash. Now, who is the miner that spends money for something that will work for a couple of years and then becomes completely useless? Most of all, who is the company that will actually sell them instead of using them for themselves? Because this is what actually happens, new and powerful ASICs are already there, up and working, then they are sold after they've been used to gain even more, and no one tells you. Part 2b “Ok, but what about re-programmable ASICs? You said these can adapt N!” First of all, I should leave the university just because I've written the word “re-programmable” near the word “ASIC”. I apologize to my professors and the degree committee. The point in this case resides behind two things: Memory Bandwidth and Technology progress. Many know that one of the big changes with Adaptive-N Scrypt (ANS) is the amount of memory it requires. So, many say, ok let's create an ASIC with 1 Terabyte of on board memory and bye bye ANS. Forgetting the fact that putting a huge amount of memory on a board means removing the area which should be reserved for the computational part, thus directly killing the performance; the point isn't only the amount of memory but also how fast memory interacts with the computational part. This speed is directly proportional to the amount of memory bandwidth (edit: it is not the same, it is an assumption for the sake of simplicity). This, and please use the same theory before buying the “New Superpower GPU” which has 32GB of VRAM instead of the 4GB predefined for the SAME chip, is a huge obstacle. The bandwidth will always be a bottleneck for the Scrypt algorithm, no matter what N is, and you can't simply change the bandwidth on an ASIC (nor you can on a GPU without changing the GPU itself). Moreover, and here it comes the technology progress part, you can't even think that an ASIC will easily equip the same circuitry and level of technology a GPU has. GPUs are built in packs of thousands, costs are spread! ASICs are build one by one, in many cases even “on request”: costs have to be fully payed and they are huge! Really huge! That's why, ok, an adaptive ASIC can be built, but:
It should be clear that it won't be as fast as a non adaptive ASIC (e.g. actual Bitcoin's and future Litecoin's), and I'm speaking of hundreds of times slower.
It will last for a few months before being surpassed again, not by a new ASIC version, but by a GPU! Because the GPU market is constantly progressing and is way bigger, and will always be because it is, magic words, “General Purpose”.
That's all folks. I hope I've been clear and at least a little bit funny in the explanation, I know these are hard concepts if studied deeply. That's why I've chosen such a passionate way of writing. I hope my English was good enough too, it's not my mother tongue. I could even try to make a prediction on how much Adaptive-N Scrypt will be enough. I have some rough idea, but I won't. It's “enough” to say that it will be “enough” :) P.S. When you see questions like the ones I've written, please don't avoid them, they deserve explanation and many times Reddit makes it difficult to find the answer. Simply redirect to this thread if you think it was explanatory. P.P.S. There's no need of tipping, I've written this to be clear for everyone and help the community growing. Don't tip, do your part by focusing on what you know how to do. It will surely help the community back! P.P.P.S. I promise this is the last. Obviously the first part of the second P.S. can be skipped. Tip if you want. Hahahahahah! Edit: Some typo correction. Thanks to KimDaebak
1- Primecoin is the First non Hash-Cash PoW Crypto-Currency.
"Primecoin is the first to show that a proof-of-work algorithm could exist to compute things other than cryptographic hash functions."
2- Naturally Scarce
Primecoin is naturally scarce (not artificially) -no hard limit and this is crucial for its long term continuity and its ability to adapt to market conditions.
According to the last estimations, the total supply is going to be ~55 Millions XPM. (peercointalk.org) You don't have to worry about inflation, neither facing blunt deflation (encountered in bitcoin/litecoin)
3- Very fast confirmations - 1min/block 4- Elastic supply
ING economist: "A bitcoin algorithm needs to be developed that smoothly matches money supply & demand"
This is hard-coded in Primecoin: difficulty going down gets corrected upwards because miners are encouraged to mine, having more reward subsidy.
When difficulty is dropping (i.e. miners leave the network), reward-revenue is recalculated upwards so that they come back in, ensuring the network security elastically vs price bumps.
5- Primecoin is sustainable
"Primecoin does not use a fixed cap money supply model like bitcoin as described in the primecoin paper, instead its mining output is associate with Moore's Law. It should have much slower drop of mining subsidy than bitcoin in the longer term (10+ years) thus much less affected than bitcoin in terms of risk of low security level. If Moore's law stops at some point then primecoin block subsidy would become relatively constant, rather than tending to zero as in the case of bitcoin (note though primecoin inflation rate is still tending to zero)."
"When the proof-of-work mint rate approaches zero, there is less and less incentive to mint proof-of-work blocks. Bitcoin is insecure."
"Primecoin has still good scarcity property similar to gold while network security is maintained without the need to raise transaction fee."
"Long-term bitcoin security relies mainly on transaction fees. Primecoin realistically would continue to have some subsidy long term, so is less reliant on transaction fees for security."
6- Primecoin is currently the “fairest” coin to mine
"The Primecoin algorithm is ASIC/FPGA hostile, and even GPU mining is not economically viable at the moment. While it is certainly possible to create specialized mining equipment, it is far more difficult and expensive to develop chips for high speed modular arithmetics. In contrast to SHA-256/Scrypt mining, those chips would also be multi-use and could be applied for other purposes after the next generation hits the market. In a sense, Primecoin is currently the “fairest” coin to mine, as it is purely CPU/GPU based. [...] Besides this, Primecoin already offers a number cloud mining providers, which inevitability will be the final stage in the specialized-mining-chip-race. For example, ASIC supplier KnCMiner recently announced not to produce mining rigs for household use anymore, as non-industrial grade power supply is not sufficient."
7- Primecoin can introduce new participants to the new digital economy
"In a Free Market, there's Free Will (and Creativity) as driver for Actions - and fundamentally Primecoin (almost philosophically) provides us with the ability/choice of applying our Ingenuity on Mining."
"With Primecoin, people who like to mine cryptocurrencies have a better choice to mine, to get more benefit out of the mining activity & environmental cost."
"Primecoin complements the goal here as it produces additional scientific value from the consumed energy. So people who like to mine cryptocurrency for whatever reason have a better choice to mine, to get more benefit out of the mining activity and environmental cost."
With Primecoin, you can actually and effectively Innovate and Improve on Mining Technologies and Techniques, on 2 lines: Hardware and Software. This is radically different from hash-cash PoW. In essence you have twice as much possibilities to earn revenues.
8- Proof-of-work cryptos will gradually transition toward energy-multiuse, ie providing both security & technological computing values. And Primecoin is the pioneer in this realm.
"One year after primecoin's public debut, the cryptocurrency designers are still focused on mixing hash functions with hash-cash proof-of-work, or finding ever more 'cpu friendly' proof-of-work; Primecoin's unique proof-of-work remains the first and one of the very few useful and actually interesting proof-of-work designs, that preserves the decentralization property of cryptocurrency."
9- Primecoin has anti-centralization features
Brute force hashing random numbers, under rigid guidelines(the more CPU, the stronger) doesn't work to mine primecoins - there's no known rules to find prime chains.
Elastic reward re-calibration, in real-time (reward gets immediately lower if difficulty would happen to rise)
10- Primecoin captures the Wasted Energy of Bitcoin's Algorithm - The mining is actually useful
"The reason why Primecoin-like “useful POWs” are the most promising is that, if the computations are useful enough, the currency’s “waste factor” can actually drop below zero, making the currency a public good."
"The innovative prime proof-of-work in Primecoin not only provides security and minting to the network, but also generates a special form of prime number chains of interest to mathematical research. Thus primecoin network is energy-multiuse, compared to bitcoin network. Primecoin is designed to sustain a prosperous mining market and high level of security, while maintaining good scarcity property like gold. Primecoin also processes payment transactions 10x faster than bitcoin network."
"Primecoin's proof-of-work is still pretty much the only alternative proof-of-work in production other than hashcash. By alternative proof-of-work, is meant alternative proof-of-work consensus. Interestingly, Primecoin also tries to address bitcoin's energy problem, from a different angle. In a free market, there is bound to be [the] coexistence of energy intensive currencies and energy efficient currencies, meaning, people have free will to consume energy to produce currency for example, mining gold. So Primecoin would demonstrate, such energy consumption can be made energy-multiuse, while preserving the critical decentralization property."
11- Primecoin has direct by-products
"Bitcoin hashing or mining provides no meaningful by-product whereas Primecoin delivers the chains of prime numbers. Primecoin is the first cryptocurrency with such property."
"Prime numbers are very useful. They are important in cryptography, and used in many encryption systems. The larger the list of known primes grows, and as the value of the numbers increases, the security of encryption methods utilizing them improves. Understanding prime numbers is also very important for high level mathematics, physics, and engineering. All non-prime numbers can be constructed from two or more prime numbers, yet a prime number itself cannot be created from any other number. Prime numbers are the building blocks of math. The more we understand about primes, we more we understand about mathematics. The more we understand about mathematics, the more we understand about the universe, and everything in it."
"For example, Primecoin provides financial incentive to these math research (e.g. research about the twin prime conjecture), if your theory advancement can provide a better mining algorithm for Primecoin mining. Twin prime is a special case of bi-twin chain. A bi-twin chain of length two, that is."
"With Primecoin, it's possible to do a proof-of-work consensus other than hashcash and have potential math research along with the fact that FPGA / ASIC development incentive may lead to problems being solved that have never happened before. It's possible, when you have ASIC primality testing chips, the computation capability in these fields would make a giant leap. That could also indirectly help theoretical research."
"Primecoin has delivered. It now holds 5 out of 21 world records in simultaneous prime numbers."
2 potential direct applications of the prime chains from Primecoin network:
Banking on Prime Numbers The prime number chains discovered by the Primecoin network may ultimately make RSA Encryption - and therefore banking in general - more secure by contributing longer prime numbers to use for RSA Encryption; the longer the prime number, the more difficult it is to "break" the encryption.
Hardware Testing & Innovation Since the early days of computing, programs for discovering prime numbers have been developed as a way to test new hardware These by-products include improved computer processors and hardware components, which can be applied to improve computer models used in the science, medical, and engineering industry.
12- Primecoin has been developed by Sunny King, one of the most talented crypto-technologists of the rank of Satoshi Nakamoto
Sunny King along with his team continues to grow Primecoin network and is currently developing a Sidechain technology for Primecoin, that is a common infrastructure to make it easier for developers to create decentralized and distributed data applications (of the sort of: namecoin, storj, peershare, datacoin )
_trendspotter at /goodcoin brought up an evaluation we can use to at least measure, rate, or review cryptocurrency based on how good they are. Here at scamcoin I think we should come up the evaluation on how BAD these guys are, just the opposite of his scale. I suggest you should use this guide also as a reference when you are looking to INVEST in a cryptocurrency. If you guys have suggestions/ideas feel free to bring it up. It is no way being objective but at least we can try. Power to the people. The problem I still trying to sort out is to weight some features properly: Anyway, the proposal Scammy Scale Rating with simple Yes or No: 1) NOT de-centralize & Not open source 2) No open-source at the release 3) "Public offering" period where one has to pay to mine early 4) No fair launch announcement, unreasonable pre-mine and/or any insta-mine 5) Extremely low starting difficulty 6) No adoption among merchants/vendors/region/country. 7) No trading at big exchanges (e.g. not on BTC-e) 8) Not offer any new feature. Clonecoins or Litecoin forking 9) Bad developer supports, lack of community or forum 10) Releasing bad software that impedes certain users from using/mining the coin. Or "faulty" start, "nodes" problem 11) Slow transaction or confirmation time 12) Short block time when mining 13) Inflated to billion of shares/coins or unreasonable supplies 14) Pseudo mumbo jumbo descriptions of the cryptocurrency 15) Poor official website, hastily done 16) No anonymity support (no Zerocoin implementation) 17) Weak security, vulnerable to 51% attack (No POS or Proof of Stake) 18) Aggressive marketing campaign, hijacking forums and threads, tons of giveaways and faucets 19) Bloat future blockchain, e.g. 2GB-60-100GB wallet you have to update even though your wallet has 2 ABC coin. 20) Weak to ASIC,GPU,FPGA miners, BotNet, or does not give everyone at least a fair chance to mine 21) Reversible transaction -- Not sure if I should leave this out 22) Low mining profitability (vs mining Bitcoin) 23) Designed to be inflationary nature 24) No interest rate of earning coin per year 25) No Multi-hashing algorithms 26) Recent release 27) Pump and dump announcements (Twitter, Facebook, subreddits or forums) associated with said cryptocurrency 28) "Rebooting" the coin, or "coin makeover" to make it fair mining/distribution again 29) Shady developers' history and/or shady major fund backers' history/intention 30) No trendsetter or no noise around the web. Use Google Trend as a way to monitor buzzes. Example:http://www.google.com/trends/explore#q=quark%20coin%2C%20bitcoin&cmpt=q 31) Not much liquidity and being dependent. How dependent of that alt-coin to that of Bitcoin? Meaning, if Bitcoin goes down 20% in value, will it also dip 20% or more? 32) Unknown or less coins' volume/share percentage jumped through the roof while other known coins have modest or small gain. Example: SexCoin jumped 1200% in a single day while Bitcoin gained 3.8% 33) "Pay first, deliver product [Bitcoin 2.0] later" - essentially investors are convinced they have to pay first in USD/bitcoin because they are promised by the developers/company to have an "EARLY START" or "EARLY SHARES" or "PRE-SHARES" on the best next-generation "Bitcoin 2.0" coin that will make Bitcoin obsolete and will be the next biggest thing in the universe. Except for the part where "the biggest thing in the universe" is nowhere to be seen. 34) Interoperability 35) Purely Proof-of-Stake (POS) coins We then can further breakdown and give weigh point to each feature and start ranking them. For example: CrappyCoin : 10 yes, 15 No. A simple solution is each Yes = 1 point and each No = 0 point. However, subjectively some features should be weight more than others. I should point how to merchant adoption and trading/buy/sell at big exchanges, multi-hashing and fair mining for everyone should be scored higher. It goes hand-in-hand with its release date. Feel free to discuss.
If there was a slot machine at a casino that promised "99% payout" and when it was audited it was determined it only paid 98%, and the casino had set it like that on purpose, would you consider that a scam? If you were led to believe a new business venture you were going into with a partner had a 20% chance of you making 10x your money, and an 80% chance of losing all your money, and your business partner had a 20% chance of losing all their money and an 80% chance of making 2.5x their money, and it turned out your business partner had knowingly reversed the odds, would you consider that a scam? I believe most people would generally consider all of these scenarios a scam. If a party offering an opportunity knowingly misrepresents the risk and/or reward, they are scamming you. So.. is butterfly labs a "scam"? Even if they ship ASICs in the next few days/weeks/months? I say: Absolutely. Since last June they have been offering this value proposition to potential customers: give us your money now, and within a relatively short time you will receive a device that will pay for itself in two months and continue generating immense returns. They been aggressively pushing (banner ads everywhere, the booth at CES) their investment opportunity (nobody buys an FPGA/ASIC for any reason other than to make money), and they market it as relatively low risk with a relatively high reward. In reality though, it's been a very HIGH risk investment (due to the opportunity cost of tying up your bitcoins for approaching one year), and low reward (due to them not being first to market and the zero-sum game mining is in general). But perhaps they acted in good faith, and simply bit off more than they could chew. I would say that's not very likely. Let's compare them to Avalon. Avalon took a limited number of pre-orders, just enough to get the funding necessary to get the first batch made. He did no real advertising and worked hard to get the machines actually made and started shipping before he accepted preorders for another, slightly larger batch. BFL on the other hand has poured a ton of the money they got from taking unlimited pre-orders into advertising, so that they could get even MORE pre-orders.. estimates are that they've now literally taken tens of thousands of them... tens of millions of dollars worth! When they finally do ship, and I believe they will eventually, those who ordered will find themselves with a machine that uses more electricity than promised, mines fewer coins than promised, started mining coins later than promised, and cost orders of magnitude (due to spending bitcoins when they were ~$10 vs ~$100) more than promised. Scam!
A FPGA opensource miner has just been released running at 80Mhps but at a cost of $585. The efficiency is stated below quoted from a post in the thread.
At 80 MHps, I will need at least 3 of these to achieve a single 5830 hashrate. That is $595.-x 3 = $1785.- at full price, vs. $190.- for the 5830. Giving the 5830 is consuming $11.- a month in electricity, and assuming this board will consume zero electricity, it will take more than 145 months, or 12 years to recover the investment, always comparing to a 5830.
Apologies but no more development information will be posted. I've been offered a 25% share from someone that owns 2 FPGA clusters. If you haven't seen that type of hardware before think a 156 FPGAs per machine.
From those posts what we can understand is that the factors that affect FPGA now are high procurement cost, low running cost and ease of scalability . What this means is that with the increasing total hash rate of the network (30Ghash/day last difficultly adjustment) the question becomes when would the difficulty render GPU inefficient in contrast to running cost? Remember to take into account FPGAs are usually run in clusters and even though it would not be beneficial to buy one outright, those who have access to FPGA are the first movers and eventual dominant forces of the mining market. Of course, in the end, ASIC is where it's at. Anyone? =D Edit: read more stuff, added info.
Attention all cryptocurrency aficionados, we have a problem. Stop trading, and read this, then resume. Seriously, stop.
Go ahead, click on the handle and see that I just made it a couple of hours ago. It's ok, I don't blame you, the validity of opinions totally depend on time stamps. Like, I don't need to stay anonymous right? There is a major communications gap between the technical, developer side, and the two groups who can actually take Bitcoin to established places: the investors, and the masses. I'm from a family of investors, and I also have a thing for technical stuff, which is why I'm spelling this out down for whomever doesn't seem to see the big problem. Just like the majority of the population doesn't understand what a block or class is, I have a feeling lots of people on our side don't really understand what goes through the average person's on a daily basis. While the people leading the march towards cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin in particular, are extremely able and intelligent, they have one big flaw: they're not talented business people. These are the same people that mark most low level questions on stack exchange as "unproductive", and 'off topic', and close them, even though those questions end up being the first result of a Google search. You might think that they know better. No, they don't. As harsh as it may sound, they are the Wozniaks who don't care about profitability, and they are adamant to believe that the pure beauty of their coin's technology will save the day. The other day I was speaking with a miner, and I expressed my concerns about Ripple. He asked whether or not it was open source, I said no. He immediately said, "Well then, it won't go anywhere, it's not open source, it's shit". This is a perfect example of the lack of foresight and flexibility which is at the heart of what will be BTC's downfall. It's time to realize that Bitcoin needs a Jobs, or it'll join the likes of Netscape and AskJeeves. Bitcoin will be killed because of a lack of marketing, narrow sighted supporters, and the clout of altcoins curtailing it. Look at my concerns about Ripple, a corporation claiming to be a decentralized cryptocurrency p2p network. Ripple has recently gained popularity, partly due to nice, Apple-esque publicity stunts, lots of shills (please, blogs on Forbes, could you be more obvious), and a website I actually feel inclined to browse. Decentralized is a buzzword for ripple, and nobody reads the second line, where they mention that to them, decentralization means having bases in multiple locations. Also surprising is the fact that they have completely severed themselves from their ties to Mt.Gox. Sure, way to gain my trust. They're holding on to half of the XRP to dole out? Thank you, but I do not need welfare. Another nice example is Litecoin. Two months ago, I read about Litecoin, and the fact that the founder was brother to the CEO of BTC China. Speaking with a friend, I foresaw the rise of Ltc, and surprise surprise, the Lee brothers have played a nice game: http://video.cnbc.com/gallery/?play=1&video=3000219884. A single Reddit post as to why the owner of a BTC exchange refuses to take LTC, and the price drops. Amazing what a name drop and some Reddit posts can do, no? Smart investors look for stability, and uniqueness. What will make the next big thing stand out, and will it be worth my money. Can it be easily used and understood by the masses, without making them feel dumb (iPhone vs Android, MacOS, Windows vs Linux, OpenOffice vs Microsoft Office, standard vs automatic). Sure there will be adopters of the opensource, I myself prefer standard to automatic any day, but I as a single person, don't matter, the masses, who can make 1 person a millionaire with the purchase of a .99c app, matter. If I, the investor, see a new altcoin coming out by the hour, with a supposed new unique "specialness", not only will I feel that the main contender, Bitcoin, is lacking and not a stable and secure investment, but I'll also doubt the validity of the rest of the cryptocurrency world all together. Think about it like this, to th real investors, Sumerian and C# look awfully similar, and they need the comprehensible English words to reassure me. Go to yahoo.com, what do you see? For them, mining happens underground where you send canaries. They do not understand hashes, they don't understand ASIC, SHA-266, FPGA, and you'll be lucky if they can tell you what a CPU does. Frankly, they shouldn't, it's not their job. Bitcoin's success depends on institutionalized money investing into the network, giving it validity, and making it an established form of currency. The more altcoins there are, the more institutions will shy away from investing: Why would they? They don't talk code, they talk money, and this one break in communication is enough to dump cryptocurrencies down the drain. Those comparing BTC to gold: there isn't a Gold 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, coming out every other day. Gold is valuable because it's unique. Altcoins destroy that uniqueness for BTC. No, Richard Branson saying he likes BTC is not enough, and no, a store in Timbuktu accepting BTC, while very comforting, will not take this anywhere. You need major players for the long term. I want BTC to do well and become established, not because of personal investment, but because I am truly sick and tired of the big people in governments and the F500s determining everything that has to do with our lives, be it ripping us off with trade agreements that should be constitutional referendums, tax hikes on our hard earned money, or what is good or not for me to consume and put into my body. Unfortunately, it seems like we as a society aren't ready for it yet, and seem to prefer the "pump and dump" method to altruistic sacrifices for the greater good of cryptocurrency. I don't blame anyone, we're only human, but I do hope I'm wrong. TL;DR: Bitcoin will be destroyed by altcoins due to lack of marketing to the masses (it doesn't look sexy, ok!), and the diffusion of capital. Altcoins will go nowhere because institutionalized investment and public interest will fall due to instability. This will cause the drop of value in all cryptocurrencies, and investors will lose millions. Altcoin creators: Stop diluting the market to make a name for yourselves, start working on BTC to make it a name for everyone. Altcoin buyers: 0.5 gram of gold is worth more than 1 gram of silver. Just because you don't own one entire BTC, it doesn't make you less cool.
FPGA vs ASIC Mining. JP Buntinx April 20, 2017. The bitcoin mining ecosystem has undergone some massive changes over the past eight years. During the initial stage of bitcoin mining, using a ... ASIC vs FPGA. The Application Specific Integrated Circuit is a unique type of IC that is designed with a certain purpose in mind. This type of ICs are very common in most hardware nowadays since building with standard IC components would lead to big and bulky circuits. An FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is also a type of IC, but it does not have the programming built into it during the ... FPGA Mining; ASIC Mining; There are other two types of Mining that can be done but are not classified based on hardware. Cloud Mining; Staking; So, these were the various ways we can do crypto mining at present and for each type the Algorithm of a coin decides which type of mining is apt for it. As of this date the two most common and competitive ways of mining are the GPU Mining and ASIC ... I co-founded LargeCoin, Inc., and we really are developing an ASIC for Bitcoin mining. As earlier replies pointed out, the unit cost of ASICs is far lower than FPGAs once you get beyond a few hundred units. The up-front cost of ASIC production varies widely depending on the process you use. On the cheap side, there is so-called "wafer sharing," where your design gets populated on to a wafer ... Im Folgenden haben wir eine Liste mit den am häufigsten gefragten Fragen der FPGA-Community zusammengestellt. Was ist FPGA-Mining? FPGA vs GPU vs ASIC Mining Vergleich. FPGA für Bitcoin oder Ethereum Mining?
Join the Cryptoversal world at http://www.cryptoversal.com What is difference between ASIC and FPGA? How does cryptocurrency mining and specific hardware wor... VoskCoin livestream on the Outlook on Cryptocurrency Mining - GPU vs ASIC vs FPGA with Q&A. Text version of todays video - http://bit.ly/2LaZA5R -- The lands... FPGA vs ASIC Design Flow - (Ch 1) - Duration: 9:29. XilinxInc 41,987 views. 9:29. Online VLSI Tutorial - Verilog RTL coding Synthesis - Duration: 9:19. Maven Silicon 3,666 views. 9:19 . How to ... The FPGA Design for ASIC Users course will help you to create fast and efficient FPGA designs by leveraging your ASIC design experience. This course will hel... In this video I take a look at Bitcoin mining hardware. I compare the performance and power usage between BFL SC ASIC vs FPGA vs GPU (Nvideo GTX 560 Ti and AMD ATI Radeon HD 8950) vs CPU (Intel ...